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Stories about the people, science and research of the Medical Research Council.

Getting the measure of animal use in research

24 Jul 2012

Mark Prescott (Credit DCS Studios, Copyright NC3Rs)

Mark Prescott (Credit: DCS Studios, Copyright: NC3Rs)

Earlier this month the Home Office released its annual statistics on using animals in research, showing that the number of procedures increased by two per cent in 2011. But does this mean that efforts to implement the 3Rs (the replacement, reduction and refinement of animal use) are failing? Not at all, says Dr Mark Prescott, Head of Research Management and Communications at the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs).

Many areas of biomedical research are dependent upon the use of animals. The NC3Rs is leading UK efforts to develop new ways of reducing this dependence on animals which can also bring wider benefits to biomedicine. Improved models, whether animal or non-animal, can lead to better research, the results of which can be translated into benefits for people such as more effective drugs.

Over the past eight years NC3Rs has committed more than £25 million in grants to scientists in universities and other research institutions. Research we’ve funded has reduced by many thousands the number of mice used to study diabetes and motor neuron disease, while providing insights into these conditions. Other work has refined procedures on rodents used as animal models of pulmonary embolism, systemic amyloidosis, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy. We have many more examples of how our research investment has improved the use of animals in research. [...]

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Life-saving data

20 Jul 2012

The APPG on Medical Research Summer Reception (Copyright: Wellcome Images)

(Copyright: Wellcome Images)

Last week, the MRC took part in the All-Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) on Medical Research Summer Reception in the House of Commons. The focus of the event was unlocking the potential of data for medical research. So just how does data save lives? MRC Public Affairs Officer Louise Wren explains.

NHS patient records are a globally unique resource for research. Accessing this information safely and securely helps scientists to see disease patterns at a population level, look at the safety of drugs over long periods of time and uncover clues to predict who will develop a disease in the future. The aim of last week’s APPG event was to give MPs and peers more information about this type of research, and enable them to meet some of the scientists working in the area. [...]

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Science reading

18 Jul 2012

Max Perutz Award logoThe MRC Max Perutz Science Writing Award for early-career researchers is now in its 15th year. As we announce the shortlist for the 2012 competition, one shortlister reflects on the process.

A few weeks ago, I briefly swapped my job as a science writer to become a science reader, reading all 119 entries for the Max Perutz Award, which this year asked the entrants to answer the question ‘Why does my research matter?

For 10 days I carried a bundle of articles around with me, delving into them on park benches, at my desk, over coffee and on the bus.

Some entrants, those that have made it on to the shortlist that we’re announcing today, made their research leap off the page, combining arguments about the necessity of their research with lively prose and a great use of imagery. As my buses trundled through London, I imagined proteins whizzing around cells, viruses coursing around bodies, the tragic slide of minds and bodies into disease. Some people focused solely on their research, while others brought themselves into the stories, describing their thoughts and feelings about their work. [...]

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Exciting times for open access

16 Jul 2012

Research papers (credit: flickr/quinn.anya)

Research papers (Credit: flickr/quinn.anya)

Open access publishing has barely left the headlines in the past few months. Today our umbrella body, Research Councils UK, announces its new policy on open access. MRC Knowledge and Information Manager Geraldine Clement-Stoneham explains the policy and why it matters.

Research Councils UK has today announced its new Policy on Access to Research Outputs. Open access to scientific research results is widely perceived as an essential part of a modern society, in which the internet facilitates rapid exchange of ideas. Open access publishing can help accelerate the process of scientific discovery, inform citizens and create economic growth.

The research councils have supported the wide diffusion of research results for many years, so why does this latest announcement matter? [...]

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Profile: Alex Brand

13 Jul 2012

Alex Brand

Alex Brand (copyright: Alex Brand)

Alex Brand of the University of Aberdeen studies how a fungus called Candida albicans navigates around the body. She told Katherine Nightingale about how her interest in science was piqued down on the farm and — for her, at least — scientific life began at 40.

Some people get into science because of an inspiring teacher, others due to an insatiable curiosity to find out how the world works. Alex Brand got into science because she bought a small farm.

The farm was in Scotland, where Alex and her husband were posted with his job in the oil industry. It was the latest in a string of placements that had taken them all over the world — and Alex through a series of jobs from announcing the sports news in Indonesia to running a poster agency in Qatar.

“I’d left school with secretarial qualifications in the days when very few people went to university, but I still had a really enjoyable and varied career in lots of different fields,” says Alex.

Running a farm requires a surprising amount of science, from checking the water supply for nitrates and other pollutants to diagnosing disease in livestock. [...]

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Getting to the bottom of medical science policy

10 Jul 2012

Heather Bailey (Copyright: Heather Bailey)

Heather Bailey (Copyright: Heather Bailey)

What exactly is medical science policy? And how can researchers influence it? Heather Bailey is a PhD student at the MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health at University College London. She took three months out of her studies to delve into science policy by participating in an internship programme run by the Academy of Medical Sciences and the MRC.

Policy can be something of a black box to scientists so the most remarkable aspect of my internship experience was the opportunity to become familiar with the variety of people and organisations involved in shaping medical policy in the UK.

From patients to professors, from trade unions to charities, I had no idea of the breadth of roles and approaches for getting medical issues onto the political agenda. I particularly valued the opportunity to be involved with the policy work of the Academy of Medical Sciences, a focal point for leading scientists to influence UK government decision-making on both current issues and in anticipation of future priorities.

For my PhD I am studying HIV in women in Ukraine. To learn about influencing medical policy in Ukraine, I spent a week with ECOHOST, a research group at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. This group’s work has shown that out-of-pocket payments to see a doctor in Ukraine are common and often unaffordable to those who most need care. As with so many medical policy problems, this has complex economic, social and political roots — an understanding of which is essential for effective medical policy reform. [...]

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Making sense of the media

5 Jul 2012

Heather Blackmore (Copyright: Heather Blackmore)

Heather Blackmore (Copyright: Heather Blackmore)

PhD student Heather Blackmore attended a Standing up for Science media workshop in June. Here she tells us why she’ll now be looking at the science news headlines with new eyes.

Have you ever read a newspaper article and felt the need to challenge the journalism or scientific content? Whether a scientist or not, I’m sure that you too come across articles that seem exaggerated in their claims or inaccurate in the way they explain research.

As a second year PhD student, I had become increasingly aware of how little I understood about how scientists and the media interact, particularly how scientists can handle media interest after publishing in well-known journals. That’s why I attended the media workshop, run by Sense about Science, in London on the 15 June.

Speakers included scientists, journalists and representatives from learned societies and Sense about Science. Discussions centred on topics such as what journalists want, why media portrayal of research goes wrong and what you can do if you spot bad science. [...]

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Dropping in on African research leaders

4 Jul 2012

John Gyapong and colleagues

John Gyapong (left in patterned shirt) and colleagues in Ghana

The MRC/UK Department for International Development African Research Leaders (ARL) scheme currently supports three exceptional scientists, mentored by a UK researcher, to undertake high quality research and develop a strong research group in Africa. Samia Majid, Operations Manager for Global Infections at the MRC, was part of a team that visited all three African research leaders to see how they are getting along.

Nine months in the planning and my first trip to Africa, I thought I’d imagined every eventuality for our 10-day trip to Burkina Faso, Ghana and South Africa, the countries where the three African research leaders are based.

But when we met Professor John Gyapong at the School of Public Health at University of Ghana on a bright, blue-skied Friday morning I hadn’t envisaged he’d be sporting a traditional shirt boldly patterned with the logo of his university department. Many employers in West Africa, apparently, have cloth printed especially to promote their organisation or company. [...]

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Taking tips from zebrafish

28 Jun 2012

Zebrafish (Credit: Novartis AG)

Zebrafish can repair their own hearts (Copyright: Novartis AG)

At an MRC-sponsored session at the Cheltenham Science Festival in June, researchers discussed why scientists are taking lessons from the humble zebrafish when it comes to helping the body heal itself.

Scientists are pretty good at growing cells. They can take stem cells, a kind of cell that has the potential to develop into many — and sometimes any — cell types, and coax them into developing into heart cells, liver cells, retinal cells, nerve cells … the list is long.

The idea is that transplanting these healthy cells into damaged organs could cure disease. There are even attempts to grow entire organs; a new heart grown from a patient’s own cells wouldn’t be rejected so they wouldn’t need immune-suppressing drugs.

But growing heart cells in the lab is a million miles from building an entirely new heart, with its specific and complex structure of muscle and blood vessels. Wouldn’t it be better to fix the old one? [...]

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Profile: Robin Ali

26 Jun 2012

Credit: Flickr/Schtumple

Professor Robin Ali is an MRC-funded scientist working at the forefront of not one, but two, fields of regenerative medicine: gene and stem cell therapy. Katherine Nightingale caught up with Robin at UCL’s Institute of Ophthalmology to find out more about his work.

The eye is fertile ground for developing new therapies, a feature that Robin Ali is taking full advantage of. Not content with a thriving gene therapy programme, he took up the challenge of entering the world of stem cell therapy in 2004 when the MRC was funding researchers to move in from other fields. Robin’s research focuses on therapies for retinal disorders, mainly those that affect the light-sensitive ‘photoreceptor’ cells of the eye. Many of these are rare, single-gene disorders that cause vision loss over time — and which currently have no treatments.

Lucky for Robin, “the properties of the eye lend it to experimental interventions,” he says. It is fairly straightforward to operate on, and the progress of a therapy — improved retinal sensitivity, for example — can be easily monitored. The eye is also somewhat protected from the body’s immune system, so there is less of an inflammatory response to introduced genes or cells. [...]

Continue reading: Profile: Robin Ali